This is a list of external funders that provide grants for graduate students at various stages of dissertation research (including pre-dissertation grants).
American Research Center in Egypt (pre-dissertation and dissertation research grants)
American Institute for Maghrib Studies (short-term and long-term grants)
Cosmos Club Foundation (research grants for students at Washington area universities)
Social Science Research Council (Dissertation Proposal Development Program, Mellon International Dissertation Research Fellowship)
Grants for Language Study
Advice for writing grants from the American Council of Learned Societies
The SSRC's The Art of Writing Proposals
The Professor Is In offers commentary and advice on everything from graduate school and the dissertation to applying for academic jobs and tenure. The corresponding book The Professor Is In: The Essential Guide to Turning Your Ph.D. into a Job goes into even more detail.
The book Graduate Study for the Twenty-First Century: How to Build an Academic Career in the Humanities is another resource covering all aspects of graduate school.